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Direct risks and impacts of marine litter and plastics

Ingestion, physical entanglement, smothering, and the transport of pathogens in biofilms are causing a range of lethal and non-lethal effects in marine organisms, including physiological disturbances, disease, changes in gene expression, alterations of behaviour, and shifts in species assemblages and biodiversity. These in turn, have impacts on ecosystems, leading to a wide range of social and economic consequences such as loss of revenue from natural resources and damage to maritime industries and coastal infrastructure.

Year: 2021

From collection: From Pollution to Solution: A Global Assessment of Marine Litter and Plastic Pollution

Cartographer: GRID-Arendal

Tags: marine litter plastic pollution

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