Every couple of years UN Environment takes the global environmental temperature.
The impacts of human activities on the oceans have serious social and economic implications, which directly and indirectly affect human health and well-being. As noted in chapter 7 of this report, impacts of great concern include those associated with climate change, pollution and overfishing. Coral bleaching is perhaps one of the most dramatic and immediate impacts of climate change on oceans in recent years; marine litter and plastic pollution are rising to the forefront of pollution issues; and the depletion of fish stocks from overfishing remains critical. Drawing on selected policy typologies and related case studies, this chapter examines key approaches and instruments employed in response to these issues. In addition, case studies are used to illustrate responses in different governance (subnational, regional and global) and geographical contexts, and highlight challenges and opportunities for policy design and implementation.This chapter also provides valuable insights into the effectiveness of policies at regional and global levels by drawing on selected policy-sensitive indicators, such as the coverage of marine protected areas, beach litter assessment and representation of vulnerable marine ecosystems in regional fisheries management organizations.
Type: Staff Publications
Year of publication: 2019
Place of publication: Nairobi, Kenya